Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Trump proves his Fascist ways

I wish to state that I DEPLORE THE STATEMENTS of presidential candidate Donald Trump about banning and tracking Muslims in America, closing Mosques and marking them with ID card notations.

He has stated that he would, if elected president, close Mosque. Does this not go against the US Constitution? Are we not a country who is proud to have freedom of and from religion? Let me remind you, Trump supporter....

US Constitution
Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Would he go so far as to  lose and ban and track Christians for their terrorists who bomb abortion clinics, the KKK against blacks and such hate crimes? Be careful to control your hate. It may be you next.

TRUMP has stated that he would ban Muslims to immigrate here, visit here as a tourist and even not allow Muslim American Citizens living abroad or travelling outside out borders to return to their own country.

He has in the past considered containment camps for Muslims within our borders. I'd this different from Hitler and the Jews. How far will it go. Would his registry be voluntary? If they did not register, would there be penalties? Would they be rounded up and housed? Would this not be a form of the hated welfare for them? Will that lead to death sentences for these innocent people.

TRUMP has stated that all Muslims are terrorists at least in their desires. He has stated that they all want Jihad and that is "ALL THEY BELIEVE IN." Not only is that poor English. It is ludicrous.

We now have a mark upon our country that the #1 candidate for president is on record saying that Muslims are not welcome here. Where is the outrage? I hear cheers. A lady in our office stated that she agrees this is right to do. She said, SEND THEM ALL HOME.

Is this not the same as the signs in our country to:
Send the blacks to Africa,
NO negros allowed,
NO Irish allowed,
The fight recently of NO gays will be served,
The ideas of women being a lesser piece of our society,
The signs that only a certain number of Minors be allowed in a store at one time (still being seen),
Etc etc etc etc

Where will this stop? If you are a republican, where is your outrage? Where is that contempt that you had in 2001 when you spouted that this or that thing says we are not patriotic? Do YOU support this madness, if so, state it below with real, rationalized, and thought out comments please.

This a a shameful statement. Though I almost never get offended myself... this offends me on behalf of every Muslim friend I have and know... peaceful, kind, sweet and loving people.

THIS IS THE FIRST THING THAT TRULY OFFENDS ME years. The last was a coworker who said to me, eye to eye in a safety meeting that he felt the US should declare open season on all gay, bisexual, lesion and transpeople, and that he had a gun in his car. Then, stepped out to use the comfort room. THIS OFFENDS ME 1000 TIMES MORE.

I believe that this theatrical set of statements leads to violence on both sides of the argument and borders. It ought to be punishable by law, and have Mr Trump banned from holding office at any level in this country for life, and much much more.

That is my expressed feeling and conviction on this topic. It pissed me the total fuck off!

#Trump #fascist #debate #politics #america #islam  #muslim #crazy #hitler #registry #republican #war #isis #isal #lunatic  #koolaid #sheep #sheep #hate  #crime #treason #unjust

Monday, November 30, 2015

City boy moved to the country... again

Moving to this house, out in the middle of nowhere, has been a challenge. I'm south of Dayton, Texas and North of Old River. My back fence begins the Trinity River Wildlife Preserve.

The house is a 1965 2 story. It has floors that are all unenen. The kitchen floor was collapsed when I moved in.

There was no heat or air conditioning when I moved here. I used a window air conditioner. I have put plastic up along the stairway and blocked the heat out. In the start of winter, a single space heater was not enough to cool my new bedroom. I'm converting the old living room into my master bedroom.

The quail barn, the start of my little game bird farm, used a portable air conditioner in the slim window during the summer. As winter is beginning, they have a room space heater.

Quail are truly little poop factories. Sunday is the allotted clean up the pens day. It is my least favorite hour of the week. The smell is horrific. I have learned that the ammonia smell accumulating in the shed means either there is not enough ventilation or need cleaned more frequently.

Snakes have been a challenge. I killed 7 so far. They have ranged from 7.5 to 12.5 feet long. Oklahoma rat snakes of Texas is their name. The rumor is that th er y were washed downstream during this year's floods.

The poor house is settling unevenly. It was sinking a bit when I bought her. All of the rain has not helped. A tree fell on the back 2 roof levels, the side addition and the quail barn, a week after I moved. It still lays on the house. I don't have the cash to fix the roof below yet.

Recently, the laundry room addition has leaked. The ceiling has begun to fall. I planned to fully remodel it. That makes it ok. I guess. The floor was already weak.

I will post more later.
Alan

Sunday, May 30, 2010

I HAVE DECIDED TO LOOK FOR "HIM"



FOR SOME REASON, TODAY SEEMS TO BE A MORE DIFFICULT DAY THAN MOST. I HAVE BEEN CLEANING AND DOING GENERAL HOUSE CHORES. NOTHING TOO DIFFERENT FROM A NORMAL DAY, WELL...EXCEPT THAT I AM ACTUALLY DOING WHAT I TALK ABOUT DOING MUCH OF THE TIME. I SHOULD THINK TODAY IS A GREAT DAY. I MEAN, EVERYONE LIKES A CLEAN HOUSE AND NONE WANT TO DO THE CHORES.

I DON'T THINK IT'S ABOUT CHORES THOUGH. YOU SEE, I HAVE BEEN DROPPING INTO AN EMOTIONAL CHASM OF LATE. I SEEM UNABLE TO REVERSE THE TREND. EVEN LESS CAPABLE OF STOPPING THE VELOCITY OF THE PLUNGE. I FIND MYSELF ALMOST WILLING A DROP; AS IF I AM ANTICIPATING THE LOUD THUD AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DARKENING PIT.

IS IT THE THRILL OF THE PLUNGE WHICH CAUSES ME TO CONCENTRATE ON THE DROP? LET'S FACE IT. TIL THE HARD SPLAT AT THE BOTTOM OF THE VALLEY, WE ARE BASICALLY UNABLE TO AFFECT OR EFFECT A CHANGE. ONCE WE HIT THE DEEPEST POINT, WHERE IT IS HYPOTHESIZED THAT WE CANNOT GO ANY DEEPER, WE ... HUMANITY AND EACH INDIVIDUAL IN SPECIFIC... CANNOT CAUSE A CHANGE.

IF THIS BE TRUE, I AM POSSIBLY SEEKING TO MAKE A CHANGE IN SOME THING, ONE, OR WAY. AS I FALL THROUGH THE DARKNESS, I SEE SHATTERING REFLECTIONS OF THINGS I HAVE DONE WRONG AND GLIMPSES OF HOW, IF GIVEN A CHANCE, I WOULD REDO THINGS DIFFERENTLY THAN BEFORE THE PLUMMET.

I WOULD HAVE DROPPED SO AND SO FOR THE MAN I LOVED, AND STILL DO. I WOULD HAVE GIVEN UP BLAH BLAH FOR HIM INSTEAD OF WHATEVER IT WAS THAT SEEMED SO GOD DAMNED IMPORTANT BEFORE THIS TIME. I SEE NOW THAT IT MATTERED SO LITTLE...FUCK, I CANNOT EVEN RECALL WHAT THE HELL IT WAS ANYMORE. YET, I REMEMBER HIM, EACH AND EVERY ONE OF THE "HIMS" IN MY LIFE WHOM I HAVE LOVED AND LOST.

IN SOME WAYS, I THINK WE PROCESS OUR WAY THROUGH HELL WHILE WE ARE STILL ALIVE ON EARTH. EACH DOUBT, FEAR, DEPRESSION, GUILT, ANXIETY, NONSENSE SYLLABLE WE PONDER...THEY CAN ALL BE EXPLAINED AS PROCESSING THE HELL OF THE PREVIOUS MOMENTS OF THIS...OUR DESPICABLE LIVES.

GLUTTONY, GREED, DESIRE, LUST, MISPLACED ANGER, OUTBURST, BETRAYAL, DRUNKEN WHATEVER...

I ONLY HOPE THAT IN THE NEXT LIFE, IF SUCH A THING EXISTS...I HOPE WE MEET AGAIN AND CHOSE EACH OTHER. THERE IN OUR YOUTH. WHILE WE ARE VIRILE AND FULL OF VIGOR. I HOPE WE CLING TO ONE ANOTHER AND SHUN OTHER PEOPLE AND POSSESSIONS FROM OUR PURPOSES...AND POSE EACH PASSING THOUGHT UPON ONE ANOTHER; TOGETHER FOREVER AND WITH NO THOUGHT OF ANOTHER.

SO, AS I PLUMMET EVER CLOSER TO THE BODY CRUSHING BOTTOM OF THIS EMOTIONAL PIT, I AM NOT GOING TO FOCUS ON THE PAIN ANY LONGER. I AM GOING TO FOCUS ON FINDING YOU... THE "HIM" OF MY DREAMS...AND HOPE THAT YOU ARE LOOKING FOR ME TOO. TEXT ME ANYTIME AT 832/367-8502. I WILL BE RIGHT HERE IN HOUSTON (OR WHEREVER MY HUNT LEADS) SEARCHING FOR YOU.

YOU KNOW, I THINK IT IS GOING TO BE A GOOD REST OF TODAY. I HOPE IT IS FOR YOU TOO.

Saturday, May 29, 2010

TIME FOR A CHANGE OF PACE HERE/NEW FORMAT

WHY IS IT THAT I HAVE TROUBLE FINDING PEOPLE IN MY OWN AGE GROUP TO RESEARCH FOR A RELATIONSHIP? I ALWAYS SEEK A YOUNGER MAN. LATELY, I AM INTERESTED IN A MAN WHO IS HALF MY AGE. HE IS SWEET, GORGEOUS AND SEEMS SO INTRIGUING. I WANT TO FIND A MAN WHO IS LOVING, A CUDDLER, WANTS TO LIVE TOGETHER, IS ABLE TO COMMIT, AND CAN CARE FOR HIMSELF WHILE BEING WITH ME.

OH WELL, THIS IS WHERE THE JOURNAL CHANGES TO ME INTERESTS AND NOT ABOUT EVERYTHING ELSE. HOWEVER, WHEN I AM INTERESTED IN THINGS, THAT IS ALSO ME.

TOGETHER, WE MAY LAUGH AND CRY AND WELL, IF YOU ARE LUCKY...
WE MIGHT JUST SHARE A WILD NIGHT, WEEKEND, OR LIFE TOGETHER.

I AM SEEING A DUDE NAMED GEORGIE. HE IS GREAT, BUT WANTS TO BE A CASUAL DATE. SO, I WILL PLAN TO SHARE MY LIFE WITH HIM CASUALLY. FRIENDS FOREVER AND MORE AS ALLOWED. i REALLY LIKE HIM A TON.

Monday, April 6, 2009

Here is a message from President Obama

alan --

Thanks in no small part to your incredible work and dedication, we have taken another step towards creating jobs and rebuilding our struggling economy.

Last week, the budget I submitted to Congress passed both the House and the Senate and it embraces our most fundamental priorities: an energy plan that will end our dependence on foreign oil and spur a new clean energy economy; an education system that will give our children the tools to compete in the economy of the 21st century; and health care reform that finally confronts the back-breaking costs plaguing families, businesses and government alike.

Thousands of you signed pledges of support, knocked on doors, made phone calls, and talked to your friends and neighbors about this budget and the investments it makes in our long-term prosperity. You showed Washington that ordinary citizens are demanding change and are willing to work for it.

Our work on the budget isn't finished -- Congress still has to agree on a final version. But your efforts have sent a message that Washington can't ignore.

I'll be counting on you even more in the coming weeks and months. The budget Congress passes will be a critical blueprint for the changes we'll bring about. But that's when the real work begins -- the work that will bring health care to every American, transform our economy to run on clean energy, provide our children with the best education in the world, and bring about a new era of prosperity.

Thank you for everything you've done,

President Barack Obama

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Iraq Prepares To Execute Gay Inmates, 20 At A Time, Starting Later This Week


March 12, 2009: Amnesty International called for the immediate intervention of Iraq's Justice Minister to stop the execution of 128 prisoners on death row, amid reports that the authorities are planning to start executing in batches of up to 20 starting next week.
On March 9, 2009, the Iraqi Supreme Judicial Council informed Amnesty International that Iraq's Presidential Council ratified the death sentences of 128 people whose sentences were already confirmed by the Cassation Court.
The Iraqi authorities have not disclosed the identities of those facing imminent execution, stoking fears that many of them may have been sentenced to death after trials that failed to satisfy international standards for fair trial. Most are likely to have been sentenced to death by the Central Criminal Court of Iraq (CCCI), whose proceedings consistently fall short of international standards for fair trial. (Sources: PRnewswire.com, 12/03/2009>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

As the US joins the coalition of nations to push back criminalization of gay people around the globe; Iraq plans to begin executing gay people.

What a shame! In a world that is slowly accepting gay people in so many ways, Iraq pushes forward with their country's bias against us.

Seems not long ago, fears of such violence were upon my brow as a young gay man in Illinois. In high school, there were threats made to me, and i was not even "out" yet. It seemed these kids knew before being told that I was gay. Their threats kept me hidden for years afterward.

When Matthew Shepherd was brutally killed in Laramie, Wyoming, on October 12, 1998; he was a mere 21 years of age. His death shook fear up my spine. I came out in 1992. His death was a horrific reminder of my high school years.

Yet, nothing like I ever had to face is even remotely close to what the men imprisoned in Iraq are facing. I hear news releases like these and think of Islam, the religion of peace... and I think to myself, another proponent of hate.

But soon, I am reminded of Christianity and Catholicism in America. The hatred of American Christians against the gay community is rampant here also. I am not so sure if many of these people wish any less "good will" to me and my comrades.

Coming out...is a lifelong series of events, not a one time thing. True, once you come out to those you know, you are out and there is no taking that back. But, with each new person you meet, it is a new decision to either revisit your "Closet" or come out to them as well. And...each time we out ourselves, we are faced with the possibilities of hatred and ridicule all over again. However, seldom do we face such intense hatred face to face.

I had one such experience recently at my work in Houston, Texas. I am a truck driver for one of America's largest carriers. During a safety meeting, oddly enough, I found myself in a room alone with a man who is generally cantankerous at best. He was aware of my being gay and had been for quite some time. He took this occasion to share with me that he is so upset with all the news about gay things happening around the world...he wished the government would declare open season on gays. Now, this man is a man who is always talking about God, mind you. Then, he said to me that he was ready to load his gun and start shooting gay people..as many as he could find till he was caught. Well, his story was one which brought fear into the forefront of my mind again. To this day, I just say hello and pass him by quickly. I considered whether to report the issue to my bosses, but figured he was probably just venting his frustrations. But, who knows? The world is such an unstable place.

I share this story to say that anti-gay sentiment is a daily routine to those of us who chose to let it be known who we are. We are not just happily accepted by everyone. And...one of our biggest haters is the Church.

To this I ask, "What would Jesus do?"

Well, seeing as he hung out with prostitutes, alcoholics, and the unclean; I think Jesus would definitely NOT act the way our Church "Leaders" are characterising. I think Jesus would do as he did with the harlot about to be stoned, "If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her."

And at this point, I ask again, Who amongst you is without sin? So, why are you picking up that stone to condemn a gay person? Are you not daily guilty of sins yourself? What makes your pet sin any less offensive to God?

To Iraq I ask, does not the Koran say in the section of The Unbelievers:
[109.2] I do not serve that which you serve,
[109.3] Nor do you serve Him Whom I serve:
[109.4] Nor am I going to serve that which you serve,
[109.5] Nor are you going to serve Him Whom I serve:
[109.6] You shall have your religion and I shall have my religion.

Is it not true that there is allowance to drive out from amidst you the unbelievers? And is there no place in all the world where these men,who do not believe as you do, can go? Some nation, MY OWN, which will take such unbelievers? Must death once again be YOUR only option? Cannot you exile these men to another country where they can live amongst those who will accept them, O Iraqi Leaders? Must you so tarnish your new stature amongst the nations of the world in this way?

America? President Obama? Someone bigger than I? Can we not stop this madness before it is too late?

Sunday, March 22, 2009

LISTEN UP>>> http://www.whitehouse.gov


LISTEN UP folks. Link up to www.whitehouse.gov and see a whole wealth of information about your Washington, DC. Miss a Presidential Weekly Address and wanna catch it. Go to www.whitehouse.gov and look under "Briefing Room" and then "Weekly Addresses." Or wanna see the Presidential Blog, Look under "Briefing Room" and then "The Blog."
Wanna see the President's agenda. It's all here. Get informed and keep up with the goals. It will help the CHANGEs make more sense. Be sure to check lower half of the link page also, covers a whole other set of issues to be considered. Leave me feedback of what other things you may want to know how to find or study...

The Bill of Rights, Read it Yourself...again

The Bill of Rights

Amendments 1-10 of the Constitution

The Conventions of a number of the States having, at the time of adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added, and as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution; Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States; all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said Constitution, namely:

Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Amendment VII
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

The US Constitution ... Read it again, Yourself

The Constitution of the United States

Preamble Note
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Article I - The Legislative Branch Note
Section 1 - The Legislature

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2 - The House

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

(Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.) (The previous sentence in parentheses was modified by the 14th Amendment, section 2.) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3 - The Senate

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, (chosen by the Legislature thereof,) (The preceding words in parentheses superseded by 17th Amendment, section 1.) for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; (and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 17th Amendment, section 2.)

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section 4 - Elections, Meetings

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall (be on the first Monday in December,) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 20th Amendment, section 2.) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5 - Membership, Rules, Journals, Adjournment

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6 - Compensation

(The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.) (The preceding words in parentheses were modified by the 27th Amendment.) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7 - Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto

All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8 - Powers of Congress

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9 - Limits on Congress

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

(No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.) (Section in parentheses clarified by the 16th Amendment.)

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Section 10 - Powers prohibited of States

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.


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Article II - The Executive Branch Note
Section 1 - The President Note1 Note2

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

(The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.) (This clause in parentheses was superseded by the 12th Amendment.)

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

(In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.) (This clause in parentheses has been modified by the 20th and 25th Amendments.)

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section 2 - Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3 - State of the Union, Convening Congress

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4 - Disqualification

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


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Article III - The Judicial Branch Note
Section 1 - Judicial powers

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2 - Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials

(The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.) (This section in parentheses is modified by the 11th Amendment.)

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3 - Treason Note

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.


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Article IV - The States
Section 1 - Each State to Honor all others

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2 - State citizens, Extradition

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

(No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.) (This clause in parentheses is superseded by the 13th Amendment.)

Section 3 - New States

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4 - Republican government

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.


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Article V - Amendment Note1 - Note2 - Note3
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.


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Article VI - Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.


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Article VII - Ratification Documents
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.


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Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. Note

Go Washington - President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire - John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts - Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut - Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York - Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey - Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania - B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware - Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Maryland - James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia - John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina - Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina - J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia - William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary


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The Amendments Note
The following are the Amendments to the Constitution. The first ten Amendments collectively are commonly known as the Bill of Rights. History


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Amendment 1 - Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


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Amendment 2 - Right to Bear Arms. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


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Amendment 3 - Quartering of Soldiers. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


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Amendment 4 - Search and Seizure. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


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Amendment 5 - Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.


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Amendment 6 - Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


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Amendment 7 - Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


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Amendment 8 - Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


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Amendment 9 - Construction of Constitution. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.



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Amendment 10 - Powers of the States and People. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.


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Amendment 11 - Judicial Limits. Ratified 2/7/1795. Note History

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


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Amendment 12 - Choosing the President, Vice-President. Ratified 6/15/1804. Note History The Electoral College

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.


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Amendment 13 - Slavery Abolished. Ratified 12/6/1865. History

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868. Note History

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


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Amendment 15 - Race No Bar to Vote. Ratified 2/3/1870. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 16 - Status of Income Tax Clarified. Ratified 2/3/1913. Note History

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


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Amendment 17 - Senators Elected by Popular Vote. Ratified 4/8/1913. History

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


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Amendment 18 - Liquor Abolished. Ratified 1/16/1919. Repealed by Amendment 21, 12/5/1933. History

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


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Amendment 19 - Women's Suffrage. Ratified 8/18/1920. History

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 20 - Presidential, Congressional Terms. Ratified 1/23/1933. History

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


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Amendment 21 - Amendment 18 Repealed. Ratified 12/5/1933. History

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


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Amendment 22 - Presidential Term Limits. Ratified 2/27/1951. History

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


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Amendment 23 - Presidential Vote for District of Columbia. Ratified 3/29/1961. History

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 24 - Poll Tax Barred. Ratified 1/23/1964. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 25 - Presidential Disability and Succession. Ratified 2/10/1967. Note History

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


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Amendment 26 - Voting Age Set to 18 Years. Ratified 7/1/1971. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


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Amendment 27 - Limiting Congressional Pay Increases. Ratified 5/7/1992. History

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

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URL: http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html

Big Brother Star, Jane Goody Dies at 03:55am



UPSHIRE, ESSEX, UK:

27 year old star of the hit tv reality show, "Big Brother;" Jane Goody has passed away in her sleep. She has been fighting cervical cancer. Jane had married her long time boyfriend, Jack Tweed, last month. She was christened with her sons this past month also. Jane's mother, Jackiey Budden, said: "My beautiful daughter is at peace." She passed at 03:55am on Mother's Day, 2009.

Monday, March 16, 2009

President Obama Moves To Open Credit for SBA, and Block AIG Bonuses


President Barack Obama today announced he will move to purchase $15 billion in SBA loans. This should immediately unfreeze credit lines to SBA. Hence, opening lines of credit to Small Businesses. He points out that community banks have been unable to raise funds to loan to the small business sector. He says in this way he hopes to help the millions of small businesses who are shouldering the burden of the poor economy.

President Obama then turns conversation to AIG. The insurance giant who keeps coming back for more money to Washington. AIG that claims to be too big to fail. Obama says he is poised to block executive bonuses at AIG. Obama is quoted as saying, "This is a corporation that finds itself in financial distress due to recklessness and greed. Under these circumstances, it's hard to understand how derivative traders at AIG warranted any bonuses, much less $165 million in extra pay. How do they justify this outrage to the taxpayers who are keeping the company afloat?"

So, maybe there is hope of someone taking the reins of spending foolishly.

See more info, including video, at ... http://content.usatoday.com/communities/theoval/post/2009/03/64214809/1?csp=34

Sunday, March 15, 2009

Ron Silver Dies


BreakingNewsOnAP: Actor Ron Silver has died in New York City after a two-year battle with esophageal cancer. Born July 2, 1946, he passed on March 15, 2009. Ron Silver is best known for his roles in Tunnel Vision (1976), Lovesick (1983), Garbo Talks (1984), Eat and Run (1986), Enemies: A Love Story (1989), Reversal of Fortune (1990),
Mr. Saturday Night (1992), Timecop (1994), and The West Wing(2001-2005).

In February 2008, Silver began hosting The Ron Silver Show on Sirius Satellite Radio, which focused on politics and public affairs. The show aired live at 9–11am ET on Indie Talk, Sirius 110.

Robin Hood Found To Have Been Real, With A Twist


It appears Robin Hood may be a real person whom lived some 550 years ago. A book at the Library of Eton in Britain houses a note in Latin from a cleric which mentions Robin Hood. The quote says, "Around this time, according to popular opinion, a certain outlaw named Robin Hood with his accomplices infested Sherwood and other law-abiding areas of England with continuous robberies." The monk seems less than generous to Robin Hood as to being a nice man who stole from the rich and gave to the poor.

See more info at ... http://www.upi.com/Odd_News/2009/03/15/Written_reference_to_Robin_Hood_found/UPI-74621237158184/

Wednesday, March 11, 2009

The Vision of America Being Restored


You know what REALLY raws my hide?

Obama haters. In my opinion, the man has been in office for 50 days, and has outdone the past 7 presidents already.

Here is a man who has a plan and is willing to do what it takes to make it work. He has a vision of where he wants to see America go. He has the drive to see it thru and turns the other cheek when others criticize him.

President Obama knows he inherited a messed up economy, but moves to correct the past mistakes of previous leaders. At the same time; he believes that while we are down, we should push harder than ever to make the scene right. This is so we see the desired America at the outcome.

W. had a vision of America that SHOULD frighten each of us to death in retrospect at least, if not all along. He pushed to be Commander and Chief, and dare I say, Dictator. With the ten recently released presidential memos he had made secret, we got to see W. looking into using troops on US soil against citizens. He desired to do search and seizures on Americans and haul us off to unknown prisons without due process. He tapped our phone lines to see what we did even in our private lives. And, let me stop this for another day's discussion and get back on topic.

Clinton was an okay president. He was a womanizer and had a weak backbone. He was a smooth talker similar to Obama, but lacked Obama's drive. For example, the gays in the military issue, which he compromised on.

Bush Sr. was a man who had a desire it seemed to cause upheaval across the globe and spent vast sums of money in so doing. He was a sneak while in office in so many areas it is almost as innumerable as W's. Remember Iraq, Kuwait, letting down the regulations on corporations.

But, Bush Sr. had an adept teacher in his predecessor, Reagan. He is the Republicans' Star Memory. But I dare say, the fiasco we find ourselves in now began in this Administration. Reagan began to deregulate corporations, took us to war, was involved in the whole Iran-conta mess, Star Wars Missile Defense, and built the idea in most of our minds that everyone could (and should) desire to be rich. Statistically and historically, not mentioning logically, an untruth.

More than any other people in recent American history, Reagan and Bush Sr. led this country over a cliff financially. They began to undo what Roosevelt had worked so hard to create in "The New Deal." Then, Clinton furthered it with welfare reforms that needed a tweak, but not to the degree he did. Some people need help and many still have not recovered from that era of government cutbacks.

Obama has a Roosevelt type mentality.

We need health care for all Americans. Without which workers miss alot of work. Employers are overburdened with Health care costs, and are forced to pass the expense on to consumers. Many people die early for lack of coverage. A great number of citizens are now considered uninsurable due to a change in employment and not being offered benefits to cover these conditions. Obama realises that insurance companies can spread statistical risk factors over a larger group of people and be able to cover these people. In a small business situation, there simply aren't enough people in the group to spread the risk factors and their speculative costs economically.

Obama sees the conditions of our school. He realises it has to be updated. We must get away from teaching towards a test and get back to teaching basics. We need our students to specialise in trades or professions. Insodoing, our young people need not use phrases like, "Can I make that a large sized fry" so long before getting to work in their chosen life paths. He realises that drop-out kids mean less people to do the real jobs that need done in order to regrow our society and make American goods marketable across the globe again. He knows we need to close ineffective or run down school and build news educational facilities to promote learning. President Obama is willing to spend now to get future gains back via higher paying jobs.

He sees our infrastructure and transportation systems are broken and decaying. Like Roosevelt knew, repairing these things creates jobs and makes us move faster and safer. Money paid today, saves lives and pays us back later.

He is pushing for new and cleaner technologies. This makes us strong again and lessens our future costs due to a healthier environment.

He knows or social security and medicare systems are on the verge of going dry. He has plans to shore these up and give us hope of retirement someday.

I could go on for pages and pages, but you get the idea by now. Each of these areas will cost money upfront, but the payback will be multiplied. Like Roosevelt, we must do what we must to get the economy rolling again. But while we are down, let's rebuild to greater heights and come out the other side better for it.

Yes, the sacrifice will be great; but is the other option any better? We cannot afford to not repair what is broken. If we are to emerge better, we must dream larger, and build higher, and we will once again be "The City on the Hill" which Reagan spoke of.

When someone tells you about a dream they had last night, often it sounds bizarre. It may sound incredible. It may take alot of thinking to figure out what it was all about. Yet oftentimes, it will amaze you once you see the vision of the dream for yourself. So, sit back and envision the dream instead of scoffing at the dreamer. You may be awed once you catch the vision.

Visit www.whitehouse.gov and see what the plans are. Join www.twitter.com and follow Obama and Biden there. Become informed.

Tuesday, March 10, 2009

Proposition 8 Trial and Awaiting A Court Verdict




As I ponder the fight in California's Supreme Court, I wonder what could be the holdup. The courts already ruled the issue was unconstitutional. The ballot initiative moved to alter the Constitution. In this, it was obviously not constitutional, in whatever state, as it takes the rights of a minority group away via a vote of the majority.

If this can be done, what is next? Women's rights to vote? Black people's right to be free? Slavery to become legal for the use of Corporations? A woman's right to choose to have an abortion? A woman's right to have 8 children at a time? A family's right to have more than 2 children? A woman's right to not keep a child known to have a defect prior to birth? A woman's choice to keep the ill child at birth? The rights of elderly people to live past a healthy age? A person's choice to live in a state? Where does the madness end?

When it reaches into your family, job, living arrangement, or whatever... Are you ready to lie down and be silent; as California and many other states want us to do? Are you willing to stand casually by and watch YOUR RIGHTS be voted away? Or would you lead an uprising and protest YOUR CIVIL LIBERTIES being taken away?

I doubt if ANY of us would allow ANY government to simply take away our rights without a fight. So, why do I constantly hear that we, gay Americans, whine to much? Why are we asked to simmer down and accept the will of the people? Why are we to allow a travesty such as this to be perpetrated upon us?

The underlying truth of the matter is that the will of the majority ought never to be allowed to trample the basic civil rights of a minority. Much in the way that your mother probably at some time asked you, "If all your friends decided to jump off a tall bridge and plunge themselves into the rocks below...would you just follow them?" Is that not precisely what California, and so many other states, and indeed our Federal Government itself is allowing to happen? We have begun to plummet off a cliff one after another due to our fears of change, or our prejudices against others. Are we to simply follow in lock-step with our fellow countrymen, giving no thought to what lies below? Cannot someone, Our Judges, Our Leaders, Our Religious Leaders, SOMEONE, see that this is a foolish injustice that leads to certain death of a healthy society? Am I the only one who sees this?

Who amongst us has a mind of their own? Who is able to break free from the mold and have an original thought of her own?

Mothers, are you willing to see the joys of your "different" children abolished? Do you not care about ALL of your Children?

Fathers, are you so concerned with what an intolerant neighbor might think, as to allow your Child to be told, "No! You are not worthy of love?"

Religious leaders, have you not lead the charge that sex before marriage is ungodly; yet denying the Children whose emotional wiring is different to not have a right to fulfill the JOY of a relationship that can be made legal, if not sanctified? Are you truly sure "your interpretation" of your religion's teachings are correct in the way you understand it to be? Are you willing to reject Science simply because it is not vague holy text from a era so far prior to your own. Do you not think your God understands changing mores? Changes in societies? Is your God so limited that he cannot be relevant today? Is it not possible that Truth today might mean something different from what your predecessors understood truth to be? Can it not be that they were in err in their interpretation? Are you following their thinking simply because it came first? Are you not then as the sheep that follow one another off a cliff one after another, never questioning the first sheep's errant thinking?

I imagine Jim Jones' followers might today see they were in err in following their leader? If you lead others down the cliffs, is it not you who must answer for the followers who follow you?

Judges, are you so cowardly as to not stand for what is right?

Politicians, must you be so concerned about the next election? Have you lost your first love for doing what is right, and the rest be damned? What happened to the zeal you once felt? When first you entered your elected position, I bet you thought you might change the world? Here is yet another chance to do so.

Neighbor, if you are so against gay marriage, civil unions, domestic partnerships, or some heretofore unknown term for a relationship; that you would see your neighbors and their families suffer because of your hesitance to change your mindset? Can you not lay aside your prejudice?

If you are all so against gay relationships, let me suggest you ... do not enter one such relationship yourself...but to allow those of us who are gay to finally enjoy ours in peace.

Are you tired of hearing about gay rights? THEN, GIVE US OUR RIGHTS AND WATCH THE DRAMA FADE INTO THE FUTURE. We hate hearing about it too.

But, until we have the right to a good job, a loving relationship, a lack of fear of being brutalised on the street, a right to keep OUR property when our loved one dies, a right to see each other and make decisions in hospitals and nursing homes, and so on, and so on, and so on ... WE WILL NOT BE QUIETED !!! Most of these issues can easily be solved legislatively and briskly...then the issue will quiet and we can get along with living our lives in peace.

IF NOT, EXPECT US TO CONTINUE TO RAISE OUR VOICES IN PROTEST. A promise never to end this battle til we win our rights is proclaimed here in print today, again.

Can't we all just coexist and get along?

Sunday, March 8, 2009

Pastor Fred Winters Killed In Church Shooting


Pastor Fred Winters was killed in the Church Shooting today. 2 others were air lifted to SLU Hospital in St. Louis. Several others injured. See also cnn.com and Stltoday.com for more details.

5 SHOT AT CHURCH IN MARYVILLE, IL


Pastor and 4 others shot at First Baptist Church of Maryville, Illinois today. A man came onto the Church stage and opened fire. Parishoners wrestled the man to the ground. Mixed reports say one Church member may have stabbed the attacker. One of the victims has been announced dead. Victims were sent by helicopter to SLU Hospital. A motive is still unknown. For continued coverage. See CNN.com

Saturday, March 7, 2009

HERE COME THE BRIDES? Illinois considers Civil Unions for Gay Couples


MSNBC report forwarded from Chicago...
Illinois legislators took the first step this week toward legalizing civil unions for same-sex couples.

The bill squeaked through a legislative committee in Springfield Wednesday.

The measure would not legalize same-sex marriages, but it would grant gay couples many of the benefits of marriage. They would have the right to visit their partners in hospitals, make medical decisions and more.

HB2234 creates the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act.

Rep. Deb Mell, who is gay, said 648 state laws -- on topics from inheritance to health care -- help married couples.

"I find it very strange that I can be elected to the General Assembly and vote on rules and laws, but these don't apply to me and my family," said Mell, D-Chicago. "We're not protected."

State Rep. Greg Harris, the chairperson of the committee and the sponsor of the measure, said in a statement published on the Windy City Media Web site that “this is legislation about fairness and establishing equal rights for everyone in our great state. At the heart of the debate over this bill is a fundamental question: Do the people that this bill applies to deserve the same rights as everyone else? The answer is ‘absolutely.'”

Opponents argue that civil unions amount to gay marriage by another name.

The House Youth and Family Committee approved the bill by a 5-4 vote, according to the Associated Press. The Chicago Tribune reported the vote was 4-3.

It now heads to the House floor.

Robin Williams' Tour Delayed Due to Open Heart Surgery




MIAMI, FL — Huffington Post is reporting, Robin Williams must cancel the remainder of his one-man comedy show, "Weapons of Self-Destruction," his publicist said Thursday.

According his publicist Mara Buxbaum, the 57 year old actor needs to undergo aortic heart valve replacement surgery. Williams' representatives gave no further information on Williams' condition. This is the same surgery former First Lady Barbara Bush underwent earlier in the week.

Since September, Williams had been on the sold-out, 80-city tour. He expects a speedy recovery and to resume in the fall according to his publicist. Tickets will be honored once the new dates are scheduled, or you may contact your place of purchase for refunds.

Best wishes from us here at Shattered Reflections to Mr. Williams. I am a huge fan!!!

For more info you can visit http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/03/05/robin-williams-to-undergo_n_172300.html .

Accident in Zimbabwe Kills Prime Minister's Wife, Speculation Continues


ZIMBABWE = Sky News is reporting Morgan Tsvangirai, 56, Zimbabwe's Prime Minister has left been released from the clinic. He and Mrs. Tavangriria were in a serious car crash. The accident killed his wife, Susan, and sent the Prime Minister to the clinic of Harare.

President Robert Mugabe visited the Prime Minister at the clinic in the hopes to quiet rumours he may have had a hand in the apparent accident.

The Prime Minister was travelling south of the city when his convoy was hit by a lorry.

The driver of the lorry says he fell asleep at the wheel, but rumors of an assassination attempt continue to spread.

For more information including video discussions on the matter, you can goto ... http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Morgan-Tsvangirai-Zimbabwe-Prime-Ministers-Wife-Susan-Killed-In-A-Car-Accident-South-Of-Harare/Article/200903115236482?f=rss .